Animal testing is a hotly debated issue in the sciences. Often, products, medicines, and other items are tested on animals before they are tested on humans. Animal testing can also involve animal research and general animal experimentation.
Like any topic, there are two sides to the story. Some people are against animal testing. Main concerns revolve around the fact that animals cannot consent to be used in testing. Animals are sometimes even hurt or killed during testing. However, some groups are for animal testing, as they believe it is necessary to keep humans safe. Also, not all animal testing is dangerous.
Below are several scholarly sources students can use in an essay about animal testing. In this list provided by essay writing service and professional academic writers, there are references that are both for and against animal testing. Students would be wise to use both kinds of sources in their assignments to show both sides of the story and to back up their own claims.
Animal Testing References – Pro-Animal Testing
The references under this heading will hold the position that either a) animal testing is good or b) that it is necessary, even if it isn’t good. These two sources discuss why medical testing needs animals to be successful.
- Use of Animals for Toxicology Testing is Necessary to Ensure Patient Safety in Pharmaceutical Development by Raja Mangipudy, John Burkhardt, and Vivek J. Kadambi
This article argues that animal testing is a necessary evil when it comes to keeping humans safe. Mangipudy, Burkhardt, and Kadambi also discuss the facts that animal testing is used for developing medication. Researchers use animal testing to make sure medication is safe for humans. However, they also discuss possible future alternatives to animal testing.
This source is three-page long PDF students can download for free. It contains compelling arguments on its own. Students would be wise to check out some of the references listed in the article to find further sources that both defend and attack animal testing.
- CBRA Fact Sheet: Why Are Animals Necessary in Biomedical Research? By the California Biomedical Research Association
This short PDF article by the CBRA argues that animal testing is necessary, even if it is not ideal. The Association argues that testing on animals is necessary because some animals, like mice, have the same type of organs and similar DNA to humans. Testing medicines, or similar things, on Petri dishes or non-living things, wouldn’t give the same results. Because of this, researchers would have a difficult time knowing if a medication was safe for humans or not.
This article also argues that there are (as of 2013) no viable alternatives to animal testing. It’s mentioned that sometimes computer simulations and non-living things are sometimes used for testing, but without a living thing, complete testing cannot be done. While it’s a shame that animal testing is done, it is necessary for human health and well-being.
This article is great for students who want to learn the facts of animal testing from a research association. This list of facts is non-biased. This list would be considered a secondary source.
Animal Testing References—Anti-Animal Testing
The references until this head will hold the position that animal testing is bad, either both ethically or, in so that, it is physically harmful. In this section, there is one primary source that is non-biased, as well as a scholarly article, which argues against the use of animal testing.
- Animal Welfare Act (1966)
The United States passed the Animal Welfare Act in 1966. This act regulated several things when it came to animals, such as how animals needed to be cared for, how/where they could be sold, and which animals can be used in research and how they need to be treated if they are used in research.
This document, containing the original content of the Animal Welfare Act, is a primary source. Students can use this source to show, in a nonbiased way, the laws affecting animal testing. Students can also find amendments to the Animal Welfare Act. This is a great source to use if students are interested in the laws surrounding animal testing.
- The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation by Aysha Akhtar, M.D, M.P.H.; edited by Tom L. Beauchamp and David DeGrazia
Even people who work in medicine, like Aysha Akhtar, know that there are some flaws in the area of animal testing. In her article, Akhtar mentions that animal testing is not always reliable. Even though some animals, like mice and apes, are like humans in their biology, they are not 100% similar. This can lead to some tests and medical treatments having different results in animals and humans.
While many other anti-animal testing articles talk discuss the harm done to animals because of animal testing, this article focuses on the potential harm to humans when results from animal testing don’t match up. This source is a wonderful scholarly source students can use to show that animal testing can hurt animals, but also humans as well.
Animal testing is a tough topic to debate, let alone do a project or write a paper on so quite often students decide to resort to cheap essay writing help on the Internet. Because of the heavy biases on both sides, it can be difficult to find scholar and unbiased articles as well as information on the topic. Luckily, these four sources listed here are safe and free for students to use; so they try their efforts and compose the paper on their own. Many of these sources also have references that students can use to find further reliable sources.